solar power & terrestrial power

800px-DanishWindTurbines

The world is desperately looking for alternative power sources in order to reduce greenhouse gases and with it save our planet.

 

 

Opinions vary widely on what course we should take to achieve a more environmentally acceptable power source.

 

 

Ultimately, the deciding factor will be the economical viability of a given power generating alternative.

 

 

If we look at some countries that are leading the world in their emission reduction efforts we cannot overlook countries like France and Denmark.

 

 

France, by far the lowest carbon emitter in the developed world uses almost entirely nuclear power.

 

 

Denmark, one of the leading countries in renewable power generation with large investments in wind power is still emitting CO2 at a rate that is a multiple larger per capita than the French emissions.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power_in_Denmark

 

 

Current debates on this subject around the world are typically based on emotions, personal vested interests and a fundamental lack of knowledge of the whole subject.

 

 

I try to learn a bit more about the subject and find that we should first differentiate between “Solar Energy” and “Terrestrial Energy”

 

 

Solar Energy includes mainly, Thermal (Coal Oil Gas), Hydro, Wind, Wave, Solar and Tidal Energy

 

 

Terrestrial Energy includes mainly, Geothermal and Nuclear (Fission and Fusion)

 

 

就是在前兩天南澳洲south Australia waterloo 就發生當地居民起來反對抗議的新聞, 因為wind turbine 做成的嘈音使人不可安睡!  我今年初就剛去了waterloo 一趟, 我也可想而知如果我後園有一wind turbine, 那真是一場災難!  政府支助了 wind farm, 農民將 wind turbine 建遠離自己的居所, 但那大風扇卻去了你家的後園! 然而 , wind turbine 可以genernate 出來的電力, 跟 thermal power plant 的相比, 是那麼的微不足道!  可是那些 green politics 就是使人民盲目的信賴了!  更甚的是, 這些環保政客, 本身對這些green energy 也不很了解! 我真希望那大風扇也該建一座在他們的後園.

 

又剛在網上有朋友對wave power 大力吹捧! 我卻認為compared with other power sources, it will never be ecconomical!!!  在 youtube 你會找到不少這些 wave turbine 的不同款式設計, 但正如我以下說, 沒有風就沒有浪了.

(在 youtube 上看到一些講述, 說wave power 是靠風的同時也有潮的漲退的幫助, 那是錯誤的, 大海咁寬廣大,潮水的漲和退, 製造不出任何的力量! 可是如果你的地理環境是在一個 如兩個島之間, 又或是有兩肩環抱的海灣, 這些都是做成海水的湧入和流出的窄巷, 製造海底的current, 這就是power的來源了. 這是 tide power 而不是 wave power.

 

如果這優良的環境下, 又加上有hige tide, 咁就正了, 因為the higher the tide, the greater the current. 在地球, 從資料(如下圖)看來也有不少地方有優良的地形還可加上這有high tide的地方, 可是我們仍然要考慮到這些地方是否接近城市呢? 如果遠離城市, 又將是做成更多的成本了.)

 

所以來說 tide power 比起以上所說的wave,wind,solar panel..都來得穩定的, 因為潮漲退是每天一定有的.  這也是為什麼最近有這麼多人去討論! 可是Edward告知我, 原來那並不是新事物, 法國44年前(1966)已經建造了世界上第一個Rance Tidal Power station, 並且仍然在運行中!

 

800px-Barrage_de_la_Rance

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rance_tidal_power_plant

sshot-2

 

 

沒有太陽, 就沒有風,雨, 潮水(太陽影響月亮, 月亮影響潮漲潮退), 海浪(沒風就不起浪), coal, oil & gas (沒有太陽, 植物/動物都不能生存, 腐蝕). — 這是為什麼我們將 Solar Energy includes mainly, Thermal (Coal Oil Gas), Hydro, Wind, Wave, Solar and Tidal Energy.

 

我將找到的有關影片如下:
 

 

Solar Energy :

 

wind power:

 

windturbinewind-power

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power

 

http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/technology/wind-power/

土豆 ( 在大陸的朋友可去土豆睇片) : http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/zk0hCIqhOYk/

 

 

 

 

hydroelectricity:

hydrohydroplant-animate6-second-biggest-hydroelectric-power-planthydropower-plant-partswuhytypicalplant

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroelectricity

土豆 ( 在大陸的朋友可去土豆睇片):  http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/numzTyDK1zA/

 

 

 

 

solar power:

 

Application20to20Power20Plant1azsolarfarm1acciona-energia-solar-01brightsource-solar-mojave-tower-080911acciona-energia-solar-02

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_power,

http://www.energymatters.com.au/solar-panels-c-148.html

土豆 ( 在大陸的朋友可去土豆睇片):   http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/yEPmDUao_W8/

tidal power :

 

seagen-generatortidal_energy_underwater_turbinetidalpower2tidal-power-turbines

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal_power

 

土豆 ( 在大陸的朋友可去土豆睇片):  http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/KjWzU0iIfhE/

 

 

 

wave power:

_1032148_wave_generator_inf300_41439944_wave_power_pelamis_inf416pelamisWave_Power_m889391

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave_power

土豆 ( 在大陸的朋友可去土豆睇片):  http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/IGfxxCflbC0/

coal, oil & gas power(同一原理, 是用thermal power plant, 即用燃燒將水加熱成蒸氣來推動turbine):

Coal_power_plant_Datteln_2_Crop1CoalPowerPlant_TVAAlma_Wisconsin_Coal_power_plants

 

http://library.thinkquest.org/C004471/tep/en/traditional_energy/coal_power.html

土豆 ( 在大陸的朋友可去土豆睇片):   http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/S_mUi9cTSIk/

土豆 ( 在大陸的朋友可去土豆睇片):   http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/CS2d2jiAVSU/

可是以上所說的 green power 跟 coal, oil & gas 相比, 成本和產出都是極大差異的. Edward 做了一個成本表:

 

 

 

Electricity Costs

 

P.S. 上圖是根據網上的資料而成的, 其中一個資料是: 一個coal / nuclear power plant 可以持續生產 1-1.5GW (Giga Watt) 可是 one wind farm with 50 wind turbines would produces typically 100MW (Mega Watt) with an average output of probably 20MW. (深想後發出微笑: 製造商當然跟你說wind turbines 可以製造出100MW 喇, 咁他們又沒騙你的喎! 如果wind turbines 可以持續的轉動, 可是一年又不是經常有大風去吹動那個turbine 呢!)

 

 

Terrestrial Energy (terra = earth):

 

Nuclear: 

nuclear power plants 1nuclearenergy1NuclearPowerPlantNuclearPowerPlant1ph_three_mile_island50099697-004-DA347454

土豆 ( 在大陸的朋友可去土豆睇片): http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/mXGc3-AWbnc/

Geothermal (Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries (板塊邊界地區優先), 不過現在科技也較優勝了, 或許已經可以用同一成本和時間, 就可鑽地更深了, 這樣不須一定在地震地帶才可取得地熱能了):

binaryplantgeo-thermal-power-plant-300x207geothermal-power-plant_ElPBR_22978iceland-geothermal-power-plantimg037untitled

土豆 ( 在大陸的朋友可去土豆睇片): http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/oAI3BPF2XSM/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geothermal_energy

 

 

 

所以:

 

whichever power source we will use in the future will entirely depend on their ecconomics, but CO2 emmitting power sources will not be an option.

 

 

暫時來說, 也真是只有核能是比較安全的能源, 大家不可否認的.  在兩大核能事故: (1) 1979 3月28, Three Mile island accident in USA,  沒有死亡記錄, 只是leak the radiation.   另外是俄國的 Chernobyl disaster incident, 核能廠 melt down (原來核能廠不可能 explode 的):  28 people died of ARS (acute radiation syndrom ) & 19 people died from different causes between 1987 & 2004.  所以加上來死了47人.  47人什麼可以跟在中國大陸的 coal miner 死亡人數比呢?? 如果單看死亡人數, 也真是核能是世上最經濟又安全的能源.

 

可是, 我們不是擔心自己死呀, 是擔心下一代會因 radiation 影響生產出K型兒童沒手沒腳或兩臉4眼等.  這是我準備下一篇要寫的是: “有關核能軸射做成人類的影響.”

 

P.S. 核能廠不可能 explode, 它不是核彈.  核能廠只有因為過熱而melt down, 當然 melt down 會做成火災和漏軸射了.  可是現代設計的核能廠設計得更先進了, 因為設計上, 如果reactor 過熱而melt down, 現在的技術是讓它melt down入地球深層土壤去.

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